..."cut-up" (we would now say "remix") culture is discussed in which digital technologies provide a platform for individuals to respond to authoritarian top-down messaging/massaging. Remixes become "a critical weapon against spectacular society." Bukatman discusses William S. Burroughs, Jean Baudrillard and Don Delillo (specifically the novel White Noise) here; and he goes on to argue, "The scrambling of language defamiliarizes it, revealing its pervasiveness and operant illusions."